Cannabinoid Receptors

The cannabinoids of C. sativa thus act in the organism through the same molecular targets as the endogenous cannabinoids. These are specific receptors located in the plasma membrane of our cells and are called "cannabinoid receptors" (CB receptors), of which there are nowadays two well-characterized molecular and functionally speaking types: cannabinoid receptor type 1, Or CB1 receptor, and cannabinoid receptor type 2, or CB2 receptor. It is possible, however, that there are other receptors in the organism, such as some receptors coupled to orphan G proteins (eg GPR55) or some ion channels (eg TRPV1), which mediate some of the actions of (endo) cannabinoids. 
Cannabinoid Receptors

Cannabinoid receptors belong to the major superfamily of receptors in the body, receptors coupled to G-proteins, and signalize primarily through Gi proteins. Thus, cannabinoid receptors modulate important intracellular signaling pathways such as the classical adenylyl cyclase-cAMP-protein kinase A pathway and, as will be seen later, also affect the conductance of some Ca 2+ and K + channels. In addition, our group has contributed to characterize the binding of CB1 and CB2 receptors to other intracellular pathways such as the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase / Akt pathway, the cascade of mitogen-activated protein kinases ERK (extracellular signal regulated kinase; Extracellular signal-regulated kinase), stress-activated protein kinase cascades JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase) and p38, and generation of the sphingolipid ceramide mediator. These and other mechanisms are involved in the control of very diverse cellular functions by cannabinoid receptors.

Only tissues of the organism that possess specific receptors for cannabinoids are targets of the action of these compounds. As it seems logical to suppose, only the tissues of the organism that possess receptors specific for cannabinoids are targets of the action of these compounds. Specifically, most of the effects of cannabinoids are mediated by the CB1 receptor, initially termed the "central cannabinoid receptor" because of its mostly cerebral location but which we now know has a very ubiquitous location. This receptor is especially abundant in areas of the central nervous system involved in the control of motor activity (basal ganglia, cerebellum), memory and learning (cortex, hippocampus), emotions (amygdala), sensory perception (thalamus) and various autonomic functions and Endocrine (hypothalamus, marrow), which logically explains that the endocannabinoids modulate these processes and that the consumption of marijuana interferes with them. The CB1 receptor is also present, for example, in the peripheral nerve terminals that innervate both the skin and the digestive, circulatory and respiratory tract, as well as in numerous tissues and organs such as the vascular endothelium, bone, testicles, uterus, eyes, liver And adipose tissue.

The CB2 receptor, initially termed "cannabinoid peripheral receptor" versus the "central cannabinoid receptor" (CB1), shows a more restricted distribution than the CB1 receptor, and is fundamentally present in the immune system, both in peripheral cells , Lymphocytes and monocytes / macrophages) and in tissues (eg, spleen and lymph nodes). Thus, this receptor is involved in the modulation of the immune response by the (endo) cannabinoids.